ACID ETCHING -Glassware is immersed in an acid bath to create a smooth, frosted effect on the glass surface.
ACL – APPLIED COLOR LETTERING – Colored lettering or design of ceramic nature permanently fused onto glass bottle surface.
ACL LUG – A small protrusion or small depressed cavity in a base of bottle to act as a guide in positioning the bottle in the decorating machine for application of ACL.
ANNEALING – A controlled temperature method of gradually cooling glass containers in ovens or Lehrs to relieve structural stresses and to make less brittle.
ANTIOXIDANT – A chemical substance that can be added to a plastic resin to minimize or prevent the effects of oxygen attack on the plastic (e.g. yellowing or degradation).
ANTISTATIC AGENT – A chemical substance that can be applied to the surface of a plastic bottle, or incorporated in the plastic from which the bottle is to be made. Its function is to render the surface of the plastic article less susceptible to accumulation of electrostatic charges which attract and hold fine dust on the surface of the bottle.
BLANK – The mold parts used in all glass container machines for preliminary formation of glass in preparation for completion of the glass containers in the finish mold where the bottles are blown. The blank forms the parison, hence the parison itself is at times referred to as the blank.
BLOOM – A surface film resulting from attack by the atmosphere or from deposition of smoke or other vapor.
BLOW AND BLOW – Expression used to identify the production principle of the IS machine making narrow neck containers. Glass is blown into the blank mold and later blown into the finish mold
BLOW MOLDING – A method of fabrication in which a warm plastic parison (hollow tube) is placed between the two halves of a mold (cavity) and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by the use of air pressure.
BLUSHING – A surface whitening or discoloration of bottle. it is the result of physically induced (e.g. by impact) or chemically induced phase separation of the (1) ingredients in the plastic compound or (2) the molecular orientation of the plastic.
BOTTOM PLATE (GLASS) – The part of the mold equipment that forms the bottom of the bottle.
BOTTOM PLATE (PLASTIC) – That part of the mold which contains the heel (base radius) radius and the “push-up ‘ of the container to be formed.
BUTTRESS THREAD – A design of thread profile (cross-section) which takes the form of a right triangle or slight modification of that form. It is usually positioned so that the right angle is at the bottom of the thread cross-section and adjacent to the neck of the bottle finish. The horizontal leg of the right triangle is the bearing surface for a matching cap thread.
CARBOY – A largeware container used principally for acids and chemicals.
CAPACITY – The amount of space inside a container provided for a given amount of product.
CERAMIC DECALS – Silk-screened ceramic inks are printed in registration on a paper carrier. The ceramic ink is then transferred to the glass or ceramic ware in a single pass. The ware is then fired in a lehr at 1100- 1200 degrees F, fusing the ceramic decal to the glassware.
CERAMIC SPRAYING – Ceramic paints are sprayed onto the surface of the glassware. The ware is then fired in a lehr at 1100-1200 degrees F, fusing the ceramic spray to the glassware.
CHECK – A very fine closed crack in glass caused by localized heat shock.
CLOSURE – A term used to describe a metal or molded cap which effects a primary seal when properly applied to a container
COLLAPSE – Contraction of the walls of a container.
COPOLYMER – A material whose chemical structure is made up of long chains of two differently structured chemical units (monomers) which repeat a more or less regular pattern in the chain.
CT FINISH – Continuous thread finish — an interrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container to accommodate a screw-type closure
CYCLE – The complete, repeating sequence of operations in a process. In molding, the cycle time is the period of elapsed time between a certain point in one cycle and the same point in the next.
DECO-GLAZE(R) COATING – A proprietary process for clear, transparent, or opaque coating of glass. The coating are in compliance with CONEG Model legislation. Graphic options available include: Heat transfer labels with matte or gloss lacquers, or silk screening.
DENSITY – Weight per unit of volume of a substance, ex pressed in grams per cubic centimeter, pounds per cubic foot, etc.
DIE – Any tool or arrangement of tools designed to cut, shape or otherwise form materials to a desired configuration.
DOUBLE GOB – A special operation of IS machine in which two gobs of glass are blown simultaneously into containers in a double cavity-type mold.
EXTRUSION – The compacting of a plastic material and forcing of it through an orifice in more or less continuous fashion.
FILL POINT – The level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.
FINISH (GLASS) – The glass surrounding the opening of a bottle. So called because when glass is hand blown, it is the last part formed.
FINISH (PLASTIC) – The plastic forming the opening of a bottle shaped to accommodate a specific closure.
FITMENT – A device used as a part of a closure assembly to accomplish a certain purpose such as a dropper, sprinkler, powder shaker, etc.
FLAME TREATING – A method of rendering inert thermoplastic objects receptive to inks, lacquers, paints, adhesives, etc. in which the object is bathed in an open flame to promote oxidation of the surface of the article.
FLASH – Extra plastic attached to a molding along the parting line; it must be removed before the part can be considered finished.
FLINT – A term used to describe a glass color which is perfectly clear and transparent.
G.P.I. – Glass Packaging Institute, an organization composed of most glass container producers to establish industry policies and standards (formerly G.C.M.I.).
GLASS – Four types of glass are specified by the U.S. Pharmacopoeia on the basis of chemical durability tests. Type 1, 2 and 3 are intended for packaging parenteral preparations and Type NP for non-parenteral products, to blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape.
Type 1. Containers normally made of borosilicate glass having a highly resistant composition. The specification test, called the Powdered Glass Test, is applied to glass as such in crushed or powdered form.
Type 2. Containers made of commercial soda-lime glass which may have been treated on the inside surface at a high temperature to obtain a great improvement in chemical resistance. The usual treatment dealkalized the glass surface to a significant depth producing a chemical resistance similar to that of Type 1, and is known as sulpher treatment.
Type 3. Untreated glass containers made of ordinary soda-lime glass. The specification places a limit on the amount of alkaline material extract in the Powdered Glass Test. The limit is higher than that set for Type 2 ware.
Type NP. Untreated glass containers made of ordinary soda-lime glass. The specification places a limit on the amount of alkaline material extracted in the Powdered Glass Test. The limit is higher than that set for Type 3 ware.
HEAD SPACE – The space between the level of the contents in the neck of a bottle and the closure. It is intended to furnish space for expansion of product due to heat or other action after packing.
HEAT TRANSFER LABEL – A label applied to a container by transferring the label, pre-printed on a substrate, to the container surface.
HI-LITE(R) PROCESS – A process utilizing hot-stamp foils which create the raised gold or silver effect on glass, metal, phenolic or urea substances.
HOT STAMPING – Engraving operation for marking plastics in which roll leaf is stamped with heated metal dies onto the surface of the plastics. Ink compounds can also be used. By means of felt rolls, ink is applied to type and by means of heat and pressure, type is impressed into the material, leaving the marking compounds in the indentation.
IN-MOLD LABELING – This is a sophisticated and fairly new decorating method for injection-molded objects which utilizes polyester labels with a heat-activated release coat. During the mold-close cycle, with the combination of high-injection pressure and heat, the label adheres to the part surface in a heat-seal fashion. Nissha labels offer a combination of colors with mirror metallics.
INJECTION BLOW MOLDING – A two stage process where a perform or parison is injection molded. The bottle finish is formed at this time. The perform is then transferred to a blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape.
LARGEWARE – A name given containers manufactured on machines especially designed for ware of over one gallon capacity.
MOLD (PLASTIC) – (V) To shape plastic parts or finished articles by heat and pressure.(N) The cavity into which the plastic composition is placed and from which it takes form.
MOLDS (GLASS) – A set of iron forms that are fastened on a bottle machine to provide a means of shaping a glass container.
NECK – The part of the container where the bottle cross-section decreases to form the finish.
NECK INSERT – Part of the mold assembly which forms the neck and finish. Sometimes called the “neck ring.”
NECK RING – That part of the mold equipment which forms the finish of a bottle.
OFFSET (PRINTING) – A printing technique in which ink is transferred from a reservoir to a printing plate, from the inked printing plate the image is printed on a cylindrical rubber roll (blanket) and then to the object to be printed.
OPAL – An opaque, white glass used to make jars and bottles.
PAD PRINTING – Ideal for 3-dimensional, contoured objects, pad printing is an indirect-printing process. High-pigmentation ink with added tack is deposited on an etched-metal plate (cliché), where it fills the etched portions and is cleared from the non-etched portion of the plate by a “doctor blade”. The remaining ink is then picked up from the etched portion of the plate by a soft-silicone pad which subsequently descends and releases the ink from the silicone pad to the ware being printed. Multicolors are done one at a time. Rotary-pad printing is used for very large volume requirements.
PARISON (GLASS) – A shaped tubular cylinder of molten glass from which a bottle is blown. Also called a “blank” or a “gob.”
PARISON (PLASTIC) – The hollow plastic tube from which a container is blow molded.
PRESS AND BLOW – Expression used to identify the production principle of the Miller machine or IS machine with “62 Process” used in making wide mouth containers. A plunger presses glass into the blank mold, and the partially formed blank is later blown into the finish mold.
PROGRAMMING – The extrusion of a parison which differs in thickness in the length direction in order to equalize wall thickness of the blown container.
PROTOTYPE MOLD – A simplified mold construction often made from a light casting alloy or from epoxy resin in order to obtain information for the final mold or part design.
PUSH UP – The contour of the bottom of the plastic container designed in such a manner as to allow as even bearing surface on outside edge and prevent the bottle from rocking.
RAISED GOLD/PALLADIUM DECORATING – Used to create a raised, precious-metal effect on glass or ceramic ware. A clear ceramic flux is applied and fired in a lehr. The gold or palladium is then screened exactly over the flux and then fired in a lehr.
RAMP – A small depressed cavity (detent) in the base of the bottle to act as a guide in positioning the bottle in the decorating machine for application of decoration.
REAMING – A method used to trim and size plastic bottle finishes. A special rotating cutting tool trims the sealing surface smooth and simultaneously reams (bores) the bottle opening to a desired size (also called coring).
SILK SCREEN PRINTING – This printing method in its basic form, involves laying a pattern of an insoluble material, in outline on a finely woven fabric, so that when ink is drawn across it, it is able to pass through the screen in the desired areas only.
S.P.I. – Society of the Plastic Industry.
SPLIT SCREEN PRINTING – A screen with a divider strip to separate colors in order to do multi-color silk screen labeling in a single operation.
SPRAY FROSTING -Ceramic paints formulated to look like acid etching are sprayed on the surface of the glassware and then fired in a Lehr.
SURFACE TREATING -Any method of treating a plastic so as to alter the surface and render it receptive to inks, lacquers and adhesives, such as chemical, flame or electronic treating.
STORAGE LIFE -The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. Storage life is sometimes called shelf life.
THERIMAGE – Registered trademark of Dennison Manufacturing Company for their heat transfer label process.
TORQUE – Force in a circular motion as applied to closure on a container, either to attach or remove the closure.
B. COSMETIC TERMS
ACCELERATED AGING – A process whereby the deterioration encountered in natural aging may be accelerated and reproduced in the laboratory by heat.
ACTUATOR – The finger button that, when depressed, opens the aerosol or mechanical pump dispenser valve mechanism and allows for dispensing of the product.
ACTUATOR INSERT – The plastic insert in the actuator of a spray pump with an orifice through which the product is dispensed.
ADHESION – The ability of a material to stick to the surface to which it is applied.
AESTHETIC FILL – Filling to a specific level in a clear package where the fill level is visible.
ANNEAL – To make soft and thereby workable by subjecting to high temperatures and controlled cooling. Used to relieve structural stresses and to make less brittle, as in metals and glass; to remove strains in glass by slow cooling at elevated temperatures. (Annealing temperatures for glass is about 1000 degrees F.) See LEHR.
ANODIZING – Electrolytic process for forming an oxide coating on aluminum for corrosion and wear resistance.
BARRIER COAT – A surface coating used to improve permeation resistance and protect the container from scuffing.
BLEACHED PAPER – A type of paper which goes through a whitening process.
BLEED – To give up color when in contact with water, solvent or a product; undesired movement of certain materials in a plastic (e.g. plasticizer in vinyl) to the surface of the material or into an adjacent material.
BLOOM – Bloom is the result of ingredients coming out of “solution” in the component and migrating to the surface of the component. Can be seen on the surface of glass as a white scale after the glass has been aged in humidity.
BLOW PRESSURE – The pressure required to form the parison into the shape of the mold cavity, in a blow molding operation.
BLUSHING – A surface whitening or discoloration apparent in plastic materials. It is the result of physically induced (e.g., by impact) phase separation of the (1) ingredients in the plastic molding compound or (2) the molecular orientation of the plastic.
BODY – The principal part of a container, usually the largest piece containing the sides. In collapsible tubes, the body (or wall) is the cylindrical portion below the shoulder extending to bottom of crimped end. In bottles, the body is the main portion of the bottle without the neck.
BRITTLENESS – A property of a material that when it breaks suddenly under an applied load, there is less than a 5% yield of the material with little or no bending or stretch.
BULB – The rubber or plastic squeezable component of a dropper or atomizer.
BUTTRESS THREAD – (See M-STYLE THREAD).
BUTTERFLY HINGE – Flexible (i.e., living) hinge used in joining the cover to the main body of a flip top dispensing closure (e.g., Seaquist dispensing closures). Superior hinge for impact resistance.
CALENDAR – A group of “stack” of rollers through which sheet material is passed, under controlled conditions of heat, pressure, and/or time, in order to give the material thickness, coating or surface finish.
CAP INSERT – The threaded inner part of a two piece cap.
CAPACITY – The brimful volumetric capacity of a container usually expressed in cc. or ml.(See
CAVITY – The female component of a mold that forms the outside of an object when plastic or glass is introduced into the mold.
CHAMFER – A beveled edge.
CHECK – Hairline cracks visible on the surface of plastic materials. (See CRAZING).
CHOKED NECK – A narrowed or constricted opening in the neck of a bottle.
COEXTRUSION – The extrusion of two materials simultaneously from a single die in such a way that the two separate materials fuse together to form a single structure.
COLD FLOW – (See CREEP).
COMPATIBILITY – The ability of a container or material to resist chemical degradation or physical change caused by the product, or to chemically change or physically degrade the product container.
CONCENTRICITY – The characteristic of circles or circular cylindrical surfaces of different radii having a common center.
CONTINUOUS THREAD (“C-T”) – An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a bottle to hold a screw type closure.
CORONA TREATMENT – Pre-decorating treatment for inert plastics, primarily polyolefins, to make them more receptive to inks, adhesives and decorative coatings by subjecting their surface to corona discharge. The corona discharge oxidizes the film, forming polar groups on vulnerable sites, increasing the surface energy and making the film receptive to inks, etc.
COVER CAP/DUST CAP/HOOD/SHROUD – Plastic cap used to protect a dispenser from accidental actuation and contamination. Also used to protect the point of a lip-eye pencil or lipstick.
CRAZING – An undesirable defect in plastic articles characterized by distinct surface cracks or minute frost-like internal cracks, resulting from stresses within the article that exceed the tensile strength of the plastic. Such stresses may result from molding shrinkage, or machining, flexing, impact shocks, temperature changes, or the action of chemical and solvents.
CREEP – The dimensional change with time of a material under load, following the initial instantaneous elastic deformation. “Creep” at room temperature is sometimes called “Cold Flow.”
CULL – The remove defective or damaged parts or articles from the Production line.
CURE – To change the molecular structure and properties of a plastic or resin by chemical reaction usually accomplished by the action of either heat or a catalyst or both, with or without pressure.
CUT-OFF – (See PINCH-OFF)
DEBOSSED – Depressed design or lettering on the surface of a bottle.
DELIVERY RATE/SHOT SIZE/DOSAGE – Amount of product dispensed in one actuation. Output per stroke (ml. or grams/second) for continuous dispensing systems.
DENSITY – The weight of a given volume of material usually expressed as grams per cubic cm.
DEPTH OF INSERTION – The distance between the rim of a metal overshell and the skirt of a threaded insert in a two piece closure.
DIE CUT – Any operation in which a form that incorporates sharp cutting edges is pressed into a substrate to cut out a desired shape.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY – The ability of a material to maintain its shape under given processing or use conditions.
DIP TUBE – Open ended flexible plastic tube that attaches to the tank of a pump and extends into the product creating a means for the product to be dispensed through the pump.
DRAIN BACK – A conical shaped inside dimension of a neck finish that extends downward from the land area to form an orifice whereby product returns into the bottle.
“E” DIMENSION – On a threaded bottle neck (finish), the measurement across the root of the threads.
EMBOSSED – Raised design or lettering on the surface of a container.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING – The susceptibility of a plastic part to crack or craze under the influence of certain chemicals, stress or other agents.
EXTRUSION BLOW MOLDING – A process for forming hollow narrow-mouthed bottles and similar hollow shapes. A cylindrical tube (the parison) is extruded and, while still in a hot pliable form, clamped between two mold cavity halves and then inflated to conform to the mold surfaces.
FEA FINISH – European equivalent of GCMI finish.
FILL LEVEL – Distance as measured down from the open end of a container to the surface of the material filed into the container.
FINISH – That portion of the neck of a glass or plastic container which carries the threads, lugs or friction fit members to which the closure is applied, and includes the sealing surface and sealing bead; generally, the whole portion above the transfer or pry-off bead. (The term finish in connection with glass containers is a holdover from earlier days before glass blowing became an automatic, mechanized operation. The neck of a container was the last part to be formed, hence the name finish.)
FISH EYES – Undissolved particles in coating composition. Also, air bubbles or voids in glass containers.
FITMENT – A device used to accomplish a certain purpose, such as an orifice reducer, dropper, sprinkler, powder shaker, etc.
FLAME TREAT – Exposing a material to a gas flame to increase the polarity of the surface. Pre-decorating procedure for PE & PP tubes and bottles. Flame treating generally causes some shrinkage of the bottle resulting in a decrease in the capacity of the bottle from the original mold.
FLASH – Excess plastic material that is squeezed out between the mold parts during molding.
FLEXIBILITY – The property of a material which will permit its being bent or twisted without breaking.
FLIP TOP/SNAP TOP DISPENSING CLOSURE – A two piece closure system where both pieces are typically attached by a living hinge. One half provides the threads for attachment to a bottle, tube or jar and an orifice for dispensing the product while the other half provides the closure mechanism, usually a pintel that snaps audibly into the orifice.
FLOW LINES – Any visible mark on a molded part which indicates the direction that the liquefied resin passes through in the cavity or the die.
FLOW MARKS – Often similar to flow lines, these marks are slight imperfections to the surface of a molded part that are results of the passage of liquefied plastic through the mold cavity. Often exhibits a wavy surface appearance.
FLUORINATION – A surface treatment for polyethylene that is used to improve the barrier properties against non-polar materials or solvent.
GCMI – Glass Container Manufacturers Institute.
GAS PERMEABILITY – The ability of a gas or other volatile substance to penetrate a material. Materials that will allow significant passage of gases are said to be permeable, while materials that resist or stop the passage of gases are said to offer gas barrier properties.
GATE – In injection and transfer molding, the orifice through which melted plastic enters the mold cavity. All plastic items manufactured by these processes will exhibit a mark from the gate somewhere on the part.
GLASS SURFACE TREATMENT – Pristine glass has a very high coefficient of friction: Glass containers are surface coated by the glass manufacturer to provide lubricity, so that containers can pass readily on conveying systems and will not cling to and scratch one another on contact.
GLASSINE PAPER – A smooth, dense, translucent paper made from highly beaten chemical pulps. It has very low porosity including resistance to grease, air and vapor transmission. When waxed, lacquered or laminated it is practically impervious to moisture vapor.
GLOSS – The amount of surface sheen or reflectance of a substance.
GRAVURE PRINTING – A method of printing that uses cells etched or engraved into the surface of a metal cylinder to meter and correctly pattern the ink. Gravure printing press used in packaging are predominantly roll fed.
“H” DIMENSION – (1) on a threaded bottle neck (finish), the measurement from the top of the finish to the point where diameter “T” extended parallel to the centerline intersects the shoulder or bead. (2) the inside height of the closure, measured from the bottom of the closure in a line tangent to the threads of the closure and terminating at the inside top of the closure with liner removed.
HARDNESS – The resistance of a material to compression and indentation.
HAZE – A cloudy or foggy appearance in a normally transparent plastic.
HEAD SPACE – The volume of empty space between the fill level of a container and the overflow capacity of the container.
HEAD STYLE (TUBE) – General definition of a neck finish, i.e., M5, M6.
HEEL -The part of a bottle between the bottom bearing surface and the side wall.
HEELTAP – Heavy glass on one side of the bottom of a glass bottle.
HERMETIC SEAL – A seal that will exclude air and will be gas tight at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressures.
HOT-STAMPING -Transfer of a foil to a substrate under heat and pressure.
“I” DIMENSION – A specified minimum dimension inside the bottle neck that will allow sufficient clearance for filler tubes to enter the bottle neck.
INDEX – Position in an arrangement.
INJECTION MOLDING -A molding process in which, under pressure, melted or liquefied plastic is forced from a cylinder into a cooled mold cavity to form a desired shape.
INJECTION BLOW MOLDING -A blow molding process in which the parison to be blown is formed by injection molding.
INTERRUPTED THREAD -Thread on (neck) finish of bottles in which the thread has gaps or discontinuities, the gaps being at the parting line of the mold.
KRAFT – A chemical wood pulp made by the sulphate process, or paper or paperboard made from such pulp. It is brown in color and is the strongest pulp product made from wood. (Kraft is the German word for strong).
“L” DIMENSION – Measured from the top of the finish to the point where diameter “E” extended parallel to centerline intersects the bead (for example, SP-410 and SP-415 finishes.
LLDPE -Linear Low Density Polyethylene.
LABEL CLAIM -The declared contents of a package expressed in fluid ounce and millimeters for volume claims and avoirdupois ounce and grams for net weight claims.
LEACHING -The removal of a component of the package by the product is referred to as leaching. A dye from the container dissolving in a product is an example of leaching. A leached material becomes a product contaminant.
LEHR -An oven used to anneal glass in order to reduce internal stress that would result from too rapid cooling.
LEXAN -Polycarbonate resin, G.E. Plastics
LIVING HINGE – Integral hinge made of flexible plastic.
LUG CLOSURE -A screw-type closure where the thread is interrupted rather than continuous. The closure is effected by a short camming action. One advantage is that application is very fast, since the closure needs only a few degrees of rotation. In contrast, a normal continuous thread closure might require 360 degrees or more of rotation to effect a seal.
METALIZING -Applying a thin coating of metal to a non-metallic surface. May be done by chemical deposition or by exposing the surface to vaporized metal in a vacuum chamber.
MIGRATION -(See BLEED).
MIL -A unit of thickness measurement being .001 inch.
MILITARY STANDARD 105E SINGLE SAMPLING PLAN -Internationally accepted random sampling.
MINIMUM WALL -A term that designates the minimum thickness of the wall of a container.
MOTTLE -A speckled or spotted appearance on the surface of a package, generally undesired.
MYLAR -Polyester film, DuPont Co.
NECK BEAD -(See TRANSFER BEAD).
NECK FINISH -(See FINISH).
NECK RING -That part of a mold which makes the glass finish. Indicated by a mark or line circling the container under the bead.
NECK SIZE (TUBE) -The # refers to the number of 64ths of an inch in the opening of the tube neck, i.e., a #16 neck size refers to a 16/64″ (1/4″) opening. The number is sometimes preceded by a letter, M = metric series; S = U.S. standard series.
NOTCHED -Refers to the end of a pump dip tube which is V-cut to prevent the dip tube from sealing off on the container bottom.
OFFSET PRINTING -A process of indirect printing in which an impression of type or a design on a flat plate is printed on a rubber-blanketed cylinder from which it is impressed, i.e., offset upon the surface to be decorated.
OPAQUE -Descriptive of a material or substance which will not transmit light.
OPHTHALMIC/NASAL TIP -Pointy tip of a tube used for dispensing small amounts of product.
ORANGE PEEL -Uneven surface (of a bottle) somewhat resembling an orange peel.
OUTERSHELL -Outer casing on a two piece jar.
OVERFLOW CAPACITY -The capacity of the container to the top of the finish or to the point of overflow.
OVERSHELL – Metal, usually aluminium, outer casing on a two piece closure.
PANELING -Distortion (side wall collapse) of a container occurring during aging or storage, caused by the development of a reduced pressure inside the bottle.
PARISON -(a) A partially formed glass shape that will be blown into a glass container; (b) the extruded hot plastic tube that will be placed in a mold to be inflated into a bottle or other hollow form.
PARTING LINE -Mark on a bottle where halves of mold meet in closing.
PERMEATION -The extent to which a gas or water vapor passes through a plastic film or container.
PINCH-OFF -A raised edge around the cavity in the mold, which seals off the part and separates the excess material as the mold closes around the parison in the extrusion blow molding operation.
PINHOLE -A very small hole in a plastic bottle.
PITCH – The distance measured between the centers of two adjacent threads of a closure or a bottle, jar or tube.
PITTING -Depressions in a metal surface caused by corrosion, and also refers to pin holes in metallized surfaces and foil stamping.
PLASTIC MEMORY – The tendency of plastics to return to their original molded form.
PLASTIC FLOW -(See CREEP).
PLASTICIZER -A material added during the manufacturing process to increase flexibility.
PLUG -A fitment that is pressed into a bottle neck opening to close off or reduce the passage.
POUR-OUT FINISH -A bottle finish having uniform undercut lips as a dealing surface. Designed to facilitate pouring without dripping.
PRIMARY PACKAGE -The first wrap or containment of a product.
PULL TAB -A projection of small area from a label, usually pressure sensitive, to assist in the removal of the label from the part, i.e., powder sifter fitment, purity seal.
PURCHASE LENGTH -Refers to tube length specification for purposes of purchasing from the vendor.
PUSH-UP -The recessed area on the bottom of a bottle designed to allow an even bearing surface on the outside edge and prevent the bottle from rocking.
RAMP – Orienting deboss in the bottom of jars and bottles for use in decorating.
REAMING -A post-operation used to size the inside of a bottle finish.
REGISTRATION -A condition of correct alignment of one part or operation with another part or operation.
REGRIND -A thermoplastic from a processor’s own production which, having been processed by molding, extrusion, etc., is then reground or pelletized.
REMOVAL TORQUE -The rotational force required to remove a threaded closure.
ROCKER -A plastic bottle with a bulged or deformed bottom, causing rocking of the bottle in the upright position.
ROLL-ON BALL SOCKET -That part of a roll-on package into which the roll ball snaps.
RUNNER – In injection molding, one of the passages that take plastic melt from the injection point (sprue) and distribute it to the various cavities in a multicavity mold.
“S” DIMENSION -The vertical distance (height) measured from the top of the land area to the very most upper part of the start of the thread finish.
SA66 -3M trade name for pulp/aluminum foil/Mylar cap liner material.
SADDLE FINISH -A molding defect which occurs during the Lehr process (cooling of the material). The top of the neck finish will actually have two high points approximately 180 degrees directly opposite each other, and two low points approximately 180 degrees opposite each other.
SARAN -Polyvinylidene chloride film, Dow USA.
SCUFF -To rub or abrade.
SEALING BEAD -A bead of material which is molded onto the top of the land area completely around the top of the neck finish in order to further enhance the sealing capabilities of the component.
SEALING LAND -The top surface of a container finish to which a cap liner or gasket engages and compresses to effect a seal.
SHRINK MARK -An imperfection, a depression in the surface of a molded bottle where it has retracted from the mold.
SIFTER TOP -Perforated top on a container or fitment designed to dispense contents.
SILK SCREEN PRINTING -A printing process widely used on plastic bottles and other articles, employing as a stencil a taut woven fabric secured in a frame, the fabric being coated in selected areas with a masking material that is not penetrated by the ink being used. The stencil fabric is commonly called a “silk screen” even though silk is rarely used today. Nylon is most often used, and screens of copper, stainless steel and many other materials are suitable. The screen is placed above the part to be decorated, and a flexible squeegee forces ink through the openings in the screen onto the surface of the article. Multicolor work requires multiple screens and impressions.
SINK MARK -A shallow depression on the surface of an injection molded part due to collapse of the surface as the molten plastic material cools and contract.
SKIRT -The wall of a closure below the functional threads.
SKU -Stock Keeping Unit.
SPIRAL WOUND TUBE -Tubular packages made by spirally winding paper or foil-lined paper. Used as an insert and barrier material in shaker talc containers.
SPRINKLER FINISH -A restricted orifice molded into the finish of a glass bottle.
STRESS CRACK -A fissure or separation that develops in a material under an applied load or stress.
STRIATION -Lines that can appear on the surface of glass or plastic components resulting from uneven cooling of the part in the mold. Can also result from a chemical attack on the component.
“T” DIMENSION -The outside diameter of the thread helix on a bottle finish.
THERMOFORMING -A method of forming plastics in which a plastic sheet material is heated to a point where it is soft and pliable. The sheet is then formed to the desired shape using vacuum, pressure and mechanical assists or any combination of these.
TINPLATE -Sheet steel, usually of special formula and temper, coated on both sides with a controlled thickness of pure tin. The tin acts to protect the steel and reduce the possibility of corrosion.
TOTTLE -Tube-bottle (pinch bottom tube).
TORQUE -Twisting force as in tightening a cap onto a bottle.
TORQUE REQUIREMENT -The minimum degree of closure tightness to achieve a projected yearly maximum weight loss of 2%.
TRANSFER BEAD -A projecting bead or ring on the outer surface of some glass containers, usually just below the finish, to provide a surface of engagement for the jaws of handling devices during manufacture.
TRIMMED LENGTH -Refers to the tube length of a sealed tube after the seal area is trimmed. The corporate spec. allows the trimmed length to be ± 0.060″ (1.5mm) of the nominal tube length.
TRUNCATE -To shorten or cut off.
TUBE DIAMETER – Determined by measuring the outside diameter of the tube just below the shoulder where tube is most rigid and can be accurately measured with a caliper.
TUBE LENGTH -Determined by measuring the distance from the outer edge of the tube shoulder to the end of the open end of the tube.
TUBE CRIMPING AREA -The uncoated portion of the tube located at the open end of the tube. The corporate tube spec. is 9mm ± 1.2mm of uncoated length.
U.V. CURING – A process which uses UV light wavelengths instead of heat to cause the cross linking of an ink or coating.
U.V. INHIBITOR – A chemical which is added to a plastic resin which absorbs UV light and helps prevent damage to and prolongs the life of the plastic. Tinuvin compounds (hindered amine light stabilizers from Ciba-Geigy) are an example. (See UV STABILIZER).
ULTRASONIC SEALING -A film sealing method in which sealing is accomplished through the application of vibrating mechanical pressure at ultrasonic frequencies (20 to 40 KC). The vibrating pressures at the film interface develops enough localized heat to melt and fuse the plastic surfaces effecting the seal.
UNDERCUT – In plastic molding, a shape that cannot be directly removed from the mold without the need to incorporate mold parts that need to be moved out of the way to release the part. Undercuts significantly increase tooling costs.
UNIT CAVITY – A mold with only one cavity, usually a pilot for the production set of molds.
UPC (UNIVERSAL PRODUCT CODE) – A 10-digit number which uniquely identifies products. The first 5 digits identifies the manufacturer and the second 5 digits identifies the item.
UV STABILIZER (ULTRAVIOLET) – Any chemical compound which, when admixed with a thermoplastic resin, selectively absorbs UV rays and minimizes chemical and/or physical changes that may be caused. (See UV INHIBITOR).
VALVE -A device which regulates the flow of material through an opening.
VENT HOLE -Hole in the tank of a mechanical pump dispenser which allows the pump to “vent”, i.e., pump air into the package to displace the material being dispensed from the package. If the pump does not vent, a vacuum will be created in the package causing the pump to stop functioning and may also result in deformation (wall pull-in) of the container.
VIAL – Extrusion molded glass or plastic tube which can be cut to any length desired.
WASHBOARD – A wavy condition of horizontal lines in the body of the bottle.
WELD LINES -A visible line created on the surface of a molded part caused by two flowing streams of plastic joining with the cavity as the cavity is filled.
WELD MARK – A mark on a molded part made by the meeting of two flow fonts during the molding operation.
YIELD POINT – That point beyond which the stresses applied to a material will cause permanent deformation.
C. PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS
ACLAR – Allied Signal, Inc.’s registered trade name for high barrier films made from PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene) resins.
AMPULE – A glass container filled with medication and closed with a rubber stopper.
ANDA – Amended New Drug Application from the Food and Drug Administration.
BARCODE -A way of labeling or coding a product that allows a clear description of the contents and limits dosage mistakes. Barcodes can only be read by scanners.
BARRIER -Protection from deterioration or ingress of moisture through package material.
BINGO CARD – A large calendar blister card designed for ease in handling to prompt compliance, high visibility, and user friendliness. Normally in a monthly supply. Commonly used by inpatient facilities.
BLISTER CARD – A blister pack sealed into a fold-over card.
BLISTER PACK – A unit-dose package commonly constructed from a formed cavity containing one or more individual doses.
BOTTLES – Glass or plastic container used to package solid or liquid pharmaceutical products.
CALENDAR BLISTER – A blister package designed to facilitate a patient’s memory by incorporating the day/time that each dose is to be taken into the package design.
CAPSULE – Solid dose medication filled into gelatin halves and pushed together; easy to swallow.
COMPLIANCE -Adhering to a prescribed regimen. Taking one’s medication properly.
CPSC -Consumer Product Safety Commission. The Federal agency responsible for implementing the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970.
CR -Child Resistant, indicates that a package will pass a test protocol administered by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
DESICCANT -Highly hygroscopic substance used to absorb moisture in bottles, vials and blisters.
DIAL-PACK -Commonly used for oral contraceptives, this type of package utilizes a calendar design such that a dial must be turned each day to remove a tablet.
DOSAGE -Prescribed amount of medication to be taken.
EXPIRATION DATE -The date until a pharmaceutical product is safe to be consumed.
FFS -Form fill seal.
FOIL -Thin gauge aluminum, typically 20-25 micron, used a push-through lid stock available as hard tempered and soft. Can be primed on two sides in multicolor.
GEL CAP -A gelatin-coated capsule which is easier to swallow, and tamper evident.
GENERIC -RX or OTC drugs which are no longer protected by a patent.
GMP -Good Manufacturing Practices (as established by the FDA).
HMO – Health Maintenance Organization.
HUD -Hospital Unit Dose packages intended for use by in-patient hospital pharmacies.
INDA -Investigational New Drug Application.
LIDDING STOCK -Material used to seal a blister to prevent or minimize moisture/gas permeation.
LOT NUMBER -A number that is assigned to a production batch so that all of a product’s components can be traced.
MACHINABILLLITY TEST – A test done to review the performance of blister components to optimize actual production runs, and find the best machine settings for individual materials.
MONOGRAPH – Standards issued by the USP.
MVTR – Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate; the amount of moisture that is transmitted through packaging film or foil over a set period of time.
MYLAR – The registered trade name of Dupont’s polyester film.
NDA -New Drug Application (must be submitted to the FDA for approval to manufacture and market the drug).
NONCOMPLIANCE -Not taking one’s medication properly.
OPD -Original Pack Dispensing. A Pharmaceutical product that is dispensed to the patient in the manufacturer’s original package (i.e., not repackaged by a pharmacist or anyone else).
OTC -Over the Counter Drugs — available without a prescription.
PHYSICIAN SAMPLE – See trial size.
POLYPROPYLENE – A monolayer blister film used for pharmaceutical packaging. Use of this film may require machine or tooling modifications.
POUCHES/SACHETS -A flexible material (usually paper, foil, PE, PET or a multi-laminate) used to package medication.
PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride. Commonly used for blister packaging of solid and liquid dose products.
PVDC – Polyvinyldine Chloride. Waterborn emulsion that is coated onto PVC or PVC/PPE to enhance MVTR & O2 TR transmission.
RELIEVED AREA -An area that is predesigned into a package for easier openings.
RX -Drugs that require a doctor’s prescription for legal dispensation.
SF – Senior Friendly; easier for older people to handle and open.
SNDA – Supplemental Drug Application.
SOLID DOSE -Non-liquid dosages such as tablets, capsules, caplets, etc.
STABILITY TESTING – The process used to confirm the efficacy of individual medicines for a set time within a given package under elevated humidity and temperature conditions.
STRIP PACK -A package used to protect solid dose pharmaceutical products, and to provide relatively inexpensive protection for individual dosages.
TAMPER EVIDENT – One or more safety features used to indicate that a package is not in the original condition as it was when shipped from the manufacturer or packager.
TOLERANCE – Minimum/maximum range of measurement.
TRANSMISSION -Quantity of moisture and/or gas passing through the packaging film or foil over a specific period of time.
TRIAL SIZE – Sample of a drug given to the patient by a doctor in a blister, strip pack or small bottle for patient to try medication, free of charge. Also known as physician sample.
TYVEK – The registered trade name of Dupont polyethelyene film used as a breathable or as a
lid stock that is difficult to tear.
UNIT-DOSE – The prescribed amount of each dosage in a package.
UNIT-OF-USE – The exact amount of a drug’s treatment pre-packaging by the manufacturer or
pharmacist in standardized amounts.
USP – United States Pharmacopoeia (a non-governmental, non-profit, scientific body that
establishes drug standards in the United States).
VIAL -Glass or plastic container filled with medication.